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Università della Svizzera italiana University Library Lugano

University Library Lugano

Chicago style: author-date system



Any project, thesis or dissertation largely relies on information taken from other works. You can draw upon a multiplicity of sources when writing a text, such as books, articles, statistics, websites, etc.

You may quote from a source, by reporting the original author’s exact words; you may paraphrase, by putting a passage from a text into your own words, or you may discuss ideas developed by other authors. In any of these cases it is essential that you acknowledge your sources in order to:

This guide provides you with the basics on how to cite sources (printed and electronic) in the body of your text and how to list references at the end of your work. It follows the rules described in the The Chicago manual of style, 17th edition (hereafter referred to as The Chicago manual of style). Examples are given on how to cite the most common types of publications. For types of documents not exemplified here, you can refer to The Chicago manual of style (online and print version) cited in the List of references or ask the library staff for advice.

Topics explored include:

  • how to quote from other texts
  • how to cite sources using the Chicago style (author-date system)
  • elements that have to be included in citations
  • how to cite individual types of sources
  • how to arrange a list of references

The majority of the examples quoted in this guide are taken from The Chicago manual of style (2017).


Quoting sources

Quotations may either be integrated into the text or set off as blocks. Remember that quotations must reproduce the exact words of the original passage (see the difference between “quote” and “paraphrase” in the glossary). For more information on how to paraphrase and summarize a text see the style manuals available at the library (section 808.02).

Run-in quotations

Generally, short quotations are integrated into the text and enclosed in double quotation marks.

In short, there has been “almost a continual improvement” in all branches of human knowledge;

Block quotations

Quotations longer than eight lines, as well as quotations that are the object of analysis, are generally set off from the text. Block quotations are not enclosed in quotation marks and are indented, commonly set in smaller type and single-line spaced. The sentence/phrase that introduces the quotation may be followed by a colon (as in the case of the introductory phrase “as follows”), a period or no punctuation at all.

In discussing the reasons for political disturbances Aristotle observes that

                 revolutions also break out when opposite parties, e.g. the rich and the people, are equally 
                 balanced, and there is little or no middle class; for, if either party were manifestly superior, 
                 the other would not risk an attack upon them. And, for this reason, those who are eminent 
                 in virtue usually do not stir up insurrections, always a minority. Such are the beginnings 
                 and causes of the disturbances and revolutions to which every form of government is liable.

Quotes within quotes

A quotation within a quotation must be marked by means of either single or double quotation marks.

Single quotation marks enclose in-text quotations within quotations.

“Don’t be absurd!” said Henry. “To say that ‘I mean what I say’ is the same as ‘I say what I mean’ is to be confused as Alice at the Mad Hatter’s tea party.”

A sentence quoted in a block quotation must be enclosed in double quotation marks.

Summarizing Gordon’s philosophy, Crane says that

                there has been “almost a continual improvement” in all branches of human knowledge …


Text added to quoted material must be enclosed in square brackets.

Marcellus, doubtless in anxious suspense, asks Barnardo, “What, has this thing [the ghost of Hamlet’s father] appear’d again tonight?”


The omission of words, phrases or more from quotations must be indicated by three dots (four dots if a whole sentence is omitted).

Emerson claims that “the spirit of our American radicalism is destructive and aimless.... On the other side, the conservative party … is timid, and merely defensive of property.... It does not build, nor write, nor cherish the arts, nor foster religion, nor establish schools."


The Chicago author-date system

The author-date method consists of very brief citations placed into the text, in parenthesis. As a necessary complement to in-text citations, you have to provide a fully-detailed list of references (also called bibliography) at the end of your work. The list must be alphabetically ordered by authors' names, in order to help readers to locate the documents for themselves. It is important that the authors’ names cited in the body of your text correspond to the entries in the reference list.

In-text citation

Here we empirically demonstrate that workers’ and regulatory agents’ understandings of discrimination and legality emerge not only in the shadow of the law but also, as Albiston (2005) suggests, in the “shadow of organizations.”

Reference list

Albiston, Catherine R. 2005. “Bargaining in the Shadow of Social Institutions: Competing Discourses and Social Change in the Workplace Mobilization of Civil Rights.” Law and Society Review 39 (1): 11–47.


How to cite sources in the body of the text

In-text citations should include the author’s or editor’s name, the publication year and, when necessary, the page number. Citations can be integrated with discursive footnotes or endnotes.

Basic form

Full citation in parenthesis

Include the author and the publication year. Give the page number/s when quoting a sentence or paragraph or when referring to a specific passage.

It often happens that “in individual interviews, people tend to play safe” (Gordon 1999, 159).

Author mentioned in the text

According to Schatz, the peer review editorial process is beneficial both to the manuscript and to the author (2004, 182).

Two to three authors

For works written by two/three authors all names must be cited – see examples for punctuation.

Two authors
The anonymity of participants in research experiments must be guaranteed without exception (Thomas and Smith 2003, 22).

Three authors
It is understandable that “in times of great crisis, governments reflexively turn to measures of increased social control, hoping to diminish dangers and lessen fears” (Driscoll, Salwen, and Garrison 2005, 166).


More than three authors

In the case of works written by more than three authors, include the first name followed by “et al.”.

According to the data collected by Schonen et al. (2009), . . .

Organization as authors

Names of organizations may be abbreviated in parentheses. In the referece list enter the abbreviation first and then the full name.

(BSI 1985)

Reference list

BSI (British Standards Institution). 1985. Specification for Abbreviation of Title Words and Titles of Publications. London: BSI.


Unknown author

Citations to texts whose author/s is not known should include the title of the document in place of the author. In case of website content, the owner or sponsor of the website is cited as the author.

Nearly 500.000 people were enslaved in the British Colonies (British Library n.d.)

Reference list

British Library. n.d. "The Slave Trade: a Historical Background." Accessed July 16 2019.


Unknown date

When citing an undated online document, it if preferable to use a revision date or, if there isn't any, an access date. In the latter case, use n.d. as the date of publication in the reference list entry and for the in-text citation.

The "Centre Pompidou" was created in 1925 as an interdisciplinary centre for culture (Centre Pompidou, n.d.).

Reference list

Centre Pompidou. n.d. "Le Centre Pompidou: L'histoire." Accessed September 16 2019.

Same author, same year

References to two or more works by the same author/s published in the same year should be labeled by letters, both in text and in the reference list.

In-text citation

(Fogel 2004a)

(Fogel 2004b)

Reference list

Fogel, Robert William. 2004a. The Escape from Hunger and Premature Death, 1700–2100: Europe, America, and the Third World. New York: Cambridge University Press.

Fogel, Robert William. 2004b. “Technophysio Evolution and the Measurement of Economic Growth.” Journal of Evolutionary Economics 14, no. 2 (June): 217–21.

Also undated works designated n.d. must be labeled by letters. In a reference list, undated works follow all dated works (see section 15.18 of the Chicago manual).

In-text citation

(Council of Europe, n.d-a)

(Council of Europe, n.d-b)

Reference list

Council of Europe, Directorate General. n.d.-a. "Human Rights and Rule of Law: Directorate." Accessed April 6, 2019. .

Council of Europe, Directorate General. n.d.-b. "Human Rights and Rule of Law: Venice Commission."  Accessed April 6, 2019.

Multiple references

If you are discussing several works by different authors, you need to provide all the authors’ names in one set of brackets separated by semi-colons.

Web 2.0 techniques are more and more frequently employed in information literacy instruction (Godwin and Parker 2008; Valenza 2007).


References to the same source

When you repeatedly refer to the same page/s of the same text in one paragraph, the citation should occur after the last reference or at the end of the paragraph, before the final period. The same happens with citations to a text that has no page numbers, as is often the case with references to websites. However, If you refer to different pages of the same text, place the complete citation after the first reference and only include the page numbers in the following ones.

Complexion figures prominently in Morgan’s descriptions. When Jasper compliments his mother’s choice of car (a twelve-cylinder Mediterranean roadster with leather and wood-grained interior), “his cheeks blotch indignantly, painted by jealousy and rage” (Chaston 2000, 47). On the other hand, his mother’s mask never changes, her “even-tanned good looks” (56), “burnished visage” (101), and “air-brushed confidence” (211) providing the foil to the drama in her midst.


Secondary sources

It is always advisable to read original sources. However, if they are not available, it is possible to cite works mentioned in other texts, as shown in the examples below.

In-text citation

In Louis Zukofsky’s “Sincerity and Objectification,” from the February 1931 issue of Poetry magazine (quoted in Costello 1981) . . .

Reference list

List the secondary source only.

Costello, Bonnie. 1981. Marianne Moore: Imaginary Possessions. Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press.


How to compile a list of references

The list of reference include all the references cited in the text, alphabetically organized. The following sections describe rules and examples of how to cite a variety of publications. It is important to pay attention to the order of the elements in the citation, the punctuation and the style. An example of reference list is available at the end of this part.


Basic rules

Authors’ names

Insert the name as it appears on the publication. In case of very common names, write the full name instead of the initials.

The author’s last name is followed by his/her first name (the first name can be initialized).  

In the case of two/three authors only the first author’s name is inverted. Please refer to the title page of the work you consulted to check the name order.

For works by more than three authors, all names should be indicated; if the list of authors is exceedingly long (usually more than ten), you may indicate only the first three followed by “et al.”.


The year of publication follows the author’s name, separated by a full stop. In case of online sources, if there is no publication date insert the date of revision. If none of these is available, insert a date of access.


Capitalization: titles and subtitles are capitalized headline-style, which entails that all major words are capitalized. See section 8.159 of the manual for more information.

Style: titles of books and journals are italicized, while titles of articles or chapters in a book are set in roman and enclosed in quotation marks. In general, titles of unpublished works, such as theses or working papers, and titles of web pages are set in roman.

Abbreviations of journal titles: journal titles are normally written in full, in order to enable readers to quickly pinpoint the source. However, it is possible to use standardized abbreviations of titles, particularly in the reference lists of scientific works. Whatever form you choose, remember to be consistent with it throughout your work. Among the many extant, you may consult the Thomson Scientific list of title abbreviations, which is fairly comprehensive and interdisciplinary, at: Finally, the Scientific style and format manual, available at the library, provides a good reference on how to abbreviate titles (Council of Science Editors 2006, 570-71).

Electronic sources

If avaible, cite the document DOI or any form of stable URL. If none of these is indicated, cite the document l'URL. The date of access is not required, unless both the publication date and the revision date are missing. In case an access date is used, insert n.d. as the date of publication in the reference list entry and for the in-text citation.



N.B. correct bibliographic information can be found on the title page of the book and its reverse side.

Two or more authors

Walzer, J. R., and T. Taylor. 1998. The Columbia Guide to Online Style. New York: Columbia Univ. Press.

In-text citation
(Walzer and Taylor 1998)

Editor as author

Schellinger, Paul, Christopher Hudson, and Marijk Rijsberman, eds. 1998. Encyclopedia of the Novel. Chicago: Fitzroy Dearborn.

In-text citation
(Schellinger, Hudson, and Rijsberman 1998)

Edition other than the first

Lesina, Roberto. 1994. Il nuovo manuale di stile. 2nd ed. Bologna: Zanichelli.

In-text citation
(Lesina 1994)

Multivolume works

Work as a whole

Wright, Sewell. 1968-78. Evolution and the Genetics of Populations. 4 vols. Chicago: Univ. of Chicago Press

In-text citation
(Wright 1968-78)

Single volume
Insert the publication date and number of the cited volume.

Wright, Sewell. 1969. "Theory of Gene Frequencies." Vol. 2 of Evolution and the Genetics of Populations. Chicago: Univ. of Chicago Press.

In-text citation
(Wright 1969)

Organizations as authors

Works authored by organizations or associations must be entered by the organization’s name.

World Health Organization. 1993. WHO Editorial Style Manual. Geneva: World Health Organization.

In-text citation
(WHO 1993)

Translated works

Cite the name of the translator.

García Márquez, Gabriel. 1988. Love in the Time of Cholera. Translated by Edith Grossman. London: Cape.

In-text citation
(García Márquez 1988)

Reprinted works

It may be desirable to cite the original date of publication of works that have been reprinted. The citation appears as shown in the example below.

Austen, Jane. (1813) 2003. Pride and Prejudice. London: T. Egerton. Reprint, New York: Penguin Classics.

In-text citation
(Austen [1813] 2003)

Electronic Books

For books available via electronic libraries or platform, cite the application or device and the document format.

Borel, Brooke. Infested: How the Bed Bug Infiltrated Our Bedrooms and Took Over the World. Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 2015. Adobe Digital Editions EPUB.

In-text citation
(Borel 2015)

For books consulted online, cite the document DOI (if available) or URL.

Felleisen, Matthias, Robert Bruce Findler, Matthew Flatt, and Shriram Krishnamurthi. 2003. How to Design Programs: an Introduction to Programming and Computing. Cambridge: The MIT Press.

In-text citation
(Felleisen et al. 2003, sec. 4.1)


Contribution to a book

Cite the individual title of the chapter, if there is one.

Phibbs, Brendan. 1987. “Herrlisheim: Diary of a Battle.” In The Other Side of Time: A Combat Surgeon in World War II, 117–63. Boston: Little, Brown.

In-text citation
(Phibbs 1987)

Cite the individual author of the chapter, if there is one.

Gould, Glenn. 1984. “Streisand as Schwarzkopf.” In The Glenn Gould Reader, edited by Tim Page, 308–11. New York: Vintage.

In-text citation
(Gould 1984)


Journal articles

Include volume, issue and year in the citation, if available. See the examples for the correct punctuation.

Volume and issue

Glass, Jennifer, and Philip Levchak. 2014. “Red States, Blue States, and Divorce: Understanding the Impact of Conservative Protestantism on Regional Variation in Divorce Rates.” American Journal of Sociology 119 (4): 1002–46.

In-text citation
(Glass and Levchak 2014)

Issue only

Gunderson, Alex R., and Manuel Leal. 2015. “Patterns of Thermal Constraint on Ectotherm Activity.” American Naturalist 185:653–64.

In-text citation
(Gunderson and Leal 2015)

Electronic Journals

The rules for citing printed articles also apply to electronic articles. Add the article DOI or the stable URL. If none of these is indicated, add the document URL. The date of access is not required.

Articles with DOI

Novak, William J. 2008. “The Myth of the ‘Weak’ American State.” American Historical Review 113:752–72.

In-text citation
(Novak 2008)

Articles without DOI


Warr, M., e C. G. Ellison. 2000. "Rethinking Social Reactions to Crime: Personal and Altruistic Fear in Family Households." American Journal of Sociology 106 (3): 551-78. http//

In-text citation
(Warr and Ellison 2000)


Articles on databases

The rules for citing articles on electronic journals also apply to articles on databases. Include either the document DOI or the document stable URL. If none of these is available, cite the name of the database and any identification number provided on the database. The date of access is not required.

Articles with stable URL

Karmaus, Wilfried, and John F. Riebow. 2004. “Storage of Serum in Plastic and Glass Containers May Alter the Serum Concentration of Polychlorinated Biphenyls.” Environmental Health Perspectives 112 (May): 643–47.

In-text citation
(Karmaus and Riebow 2004)

Articles without DOI or stable URL

Girard, Nathalie. 2013. "Categorizing Stakeholders' Practices with Repertory Grids for Sustainable Development." Management 16 (1): 31-48. EBSCO Business Source Premier (88871222).

In-text citation
(Girard 2013)


Newspaper articles

It is sufficient to cite newspapers in the text, without creating an entry in the reference list (see examples at section 14.198 of the manual). If a reference list entry is needed, repeat the year with the month and day in the reference list to avoid any confusion .

Goodstein, L., and W. Glaberson. 2000. "The Well-Marked Roads to Homicidal Rage." New York Times, April 10, 2000.

In-text citation
(Goodstein and Glaberson 2000)

Unsigned Articles

The name of the newspaper stands in place of the author.

New York Times. 2002. "In Texas, Ad Heats Up Race for Governor." July 30, 2002.

In-text citation
(New York Times 2002)

Electronic Newspapers

Cite the document URL. The date of access is not required.

Mitchell, Alison, and Frank Bruni. 2001. "Scars Still Raw, Bush Clashes with McCain." New York Times, March 25, 2001.

In-text citation
(Mitchell and Bruni 2001)



Cite the review author and title, if given.

Boehnke, Michael. 2000. Review of Analysis of Human Genetic Linkage, 3rd ed., by Jurg Ott. Am J HumGenet 66:1725.

In-text citation
(Boehnke 2000)


Theses, papers


Specify the type of thesis and the academic institution.

Choi, Mihwa. 2008. “Contesting Imaginaires in Death Rituals during the Northern Song Dynasty.” PhD diss., University of Chicago. ProQuest (AAT 3300426).

In-text citation
(Choi 2008)

Papers presented at meetings

Specify the meeting name and place.

O'Guinn, T. C. 1987. "Touching Greatness: Some Aspects of Star Worship in Contemporary Consumption." Paper presented at the annual meeting of the American Psychological Association, New York.

In-text citation
(O'Guinn 1987)

Working papers

Specify the type of material and the academic institution.

Lucki, Deborah D., and Richard, W. Pollay. 1980. “Content Analysis of Advertising: A Review of the Literature.” Working paper, History of Advertising Archives, Faculty of Commerce, University of British Columbia.

In-text citation
(Lucki and Pollay 1980)


Dictionaries and encyclopedias


Cite the author and the title of the entry. The page number is not required. In case of online documents, insert the document URL without the date of access, which is required only if there is neither a publication nor a revision date.

Isaacson, Melissa. 2005. “Bulls.” In Encyclopedia of Chicago, edited by Janice L. Reiff, Ann Durkin Keating, and James R. Grossman. Chicago Historical Society.

In-text citation
(Isaacson 2005)

Unknown author

References to entries without a specific author, published in well-known dictionaries or encyclopedias, are normally placed in the text only. It is necessary to cite the edition (other than the first) and the item preceded by s.v. (abbreviation of sub verbo).

(Encyclopaedia Britannica, 15th ed., s.v. “salvation” )

In case of online works that have no publication date, cite the revision date or, if this is not available, a date of access. No URL should appear in parenthesis.

(Merriam-Webster OnLine, s.v. "mondegreen," accessed July 13, 2019)

If a reference list entry is needed, it should appear as shown in the example below.

Merriam-Webster OnLine. n.d. s.v. “mondegreen.” Accessed July 13, 2019.

In-text citation
(Merriam-Webster OnLine, n.d.)


Wikipedia entries should be used with caution, particularly because information may be created or modified by someone who is not an expert in the field. It is worthwhile checking whether more authoritative resources are available as an alternative. We recommend checking the instructions regarding the use of Wikipedia with the academic supervisor.

As with other encyclopedias, Wikipedia entries are normally placed in the text only.

(Wikipedia, s.v. "caloris planitia," last modified July 13, 2019)

If a reference list entry is needed, it should appear as shown in the example below.

Wikipedia. 2013. S.v. "caloris planitia." Last modified July 13, 2019.

In-text citation
(Wikipedia 2019)



Unpublished interviews

Unpublished interviews are generally cited in running text.

Andrew Macmillan, principal adviser of the  FAO Investment Center Division, explains that ... (discussion with the author, June 20, 2019)

Published interviews

Published interviews must be cited in the reference list.

Carson, Ciaran. 1999. "Inventing Carson: An Interview." By David Laskowski. Chicago Review, 45 (3-4): 92-100.

In-text citation
(Carson 1999)


Corporate reports or reports issued by organizations should be treated as books.

ALA (American Library Association). 2010. Psychology Information Literacy Standards.

In-text citation
(ALA 2010)


Audiovisual material

References to audiovisual material should include the name of the person responsible for the content (composer, perfomer etc.) and the indication of the medium (DVD, CD etc.).

Cleese, John, Terry Gilliam, Eric Idle, Terry Jones, and Michael Palin. 2001. “Commentaries.” Disc 2. Monty Python and the Holy Grail, special ed. DVD. Directed by Terry Gilliam and Terry Jones. Culver City, CA: Columbia Tristar Home Entertainment.

In-text citation
(Cleese et al. 2001)

Television broadcast

Cite the title of the episode (if known) and the name of the TV series.

Curtis, Michael, and Gregory S. Malins. 2003. “The One with the Princess Leia Fantasy.” Friends, season 3, episode 1. DVD. Directed by Gail Mancuso. Aired September 19, 1996. Burbank, CA: Warner Home Video.

In-text citation
(Curtis and Malins 2003)


Web pages are normally cited in running text, as shown in the example below. In the text it is not necessary to cite the document URL.

The McDonald’s Corporation (n.d.) announced a policy to reduce the use of antiobiotics in their beef supply chain.

If a reference list entry is needed, include the title or a description of the page, the name of the author, the owner or sponsor of the site, and a URL. Cite the publication date or the revision date. If none of these is available, cite the access date and use n.d. as the date of publication.

McDonald’s Corporation. n.d. “About Our Food: Our Commitment to Quality.” Accessed August 13, 2019.

In-text citation
(McDonald's Corporation, n.d.)

Unknown author
If no personal author is specified, the name of the organization or association that owns the website may be entered in his/her place.

Yale University. n.d. “About Yale: Yale Facts.” Accessed August 22, 2019.

In-text citation
(Yale University, n.d.)

Academic lectures

Cite the location, the date and the institution.

Hong, Viviana. 2015. “Censorship in Children’s Literature during Argentina’s Dirty War (1976–1983).” Lecture, University of Chicago, Chicago, April 30, 2015.

Citazione nel corpo del testo
(Hong 2015)

You Tube, blog post and social media

Generally social media content is cited in text only. If a reference list entry is needed, include the real name and a screen name, if both are available. Repeat the year with the month and day in the reference list to avoid any confusion.

You Tube video

CBS Boston. 2019. "Apollo 15: 50 years later." Video YouTube,  July 15, 2019.

In-text citation
(CBS Boston 2019)

Blog post

Germano, William. 2017. “Futurist Shock.” Lingua Franca. Blog post. Chronicle of Higher Education, February 15, 2017.

In-text citation
(Germano 2017)


Díaz, Junot. 2016. “Always surprises my students when I tell them that the ‘real’ medieval was more diverse than the fake ones most of us consume,” Facebook, February 24, 2016.

In-text citation
(Díaz 2016)


O’Brien, Conan (@ConanOBrien). 2015. “In honor of Earth Day, I’m recycling my tweets.” Twitter, April 22, 2015, 11:10 a.m.

In-text citation
(O’Brien 2015)


Souza, Pete (@petesouza). 2016. “President Obama bids farewell to President Xi of China at the conclusion of the Nuclear Security Summit.” Instagram photo, April 1, 2016.

In-text citation
(Souza 2016)


E-mail messages

Private messages should be cited in the text only. Messages posted in public lists may be cited in the reference list. 

Personal communications

In-text citation
(Constance Conlon, e-mail message to author, April 17, 2000.)

Public messages

Olson, Nancy. 2017. Reply message to “How did the ‘cool kids’ from high school turn out?,” Quora, last modified January 22, 2017.

In-text citation
(Olson 2017)


Example of reference list

In the reference list entries must be arranged alphabetically by the authors’ last names (or editor's). Works by the same author should be ordered chronologically, starting from the oldest. A single-author work must be entered before a multi-author work beginning with the same name. Undated works follow all dated works. More information at sections 15.10-16 of the manual.

American Library Association. Psychology Information Literacy Standards. 2010.

Gould, Glenn. 1984. “Streisand as Schwarzkopf.” In The Glenn Gould Reader, edited by Tim Page, 308–11. New York: Vintage.

Lesina, Roberto. 1994. Il nuovo manuale di stile. 2nd ed. Bologna: Zanichelli.

Karmaus, Wilfried, and John F. Riebow. 2004. “Storage of Serum in Plastic and Glass Containers May Alter the Serum Concentration of Polychlorinated Biphenyls.” Environmental Health Perspectives 112 (May): 643–47.

Krugman, Paul R. 2007. The Conscience of a Liberal. New York: W.W. Norton.

Krugman, Paul R., and Robin Wells, R. 2006. Economics. New York: Worth.

Mankiw, N. Gregory. 2007. Macroeconomics. 6th ed. New York: Worth.

Mankiw, N. Gregory. 2008. Principles of Economics. 5th ed. Mason: South-Western Cengage Learning.

Schellinger, Paul, Christopher Hudson, and Marijk Rijsberman, eds. 1998. Encyclopedia of the Novel. Chicago: Fitzroy Dearborn.

McDonald’s Corporation. n.d. “About Our Food: Our Commitment to Quality.” Accessed August 13, 2019.



We provide here a brief list of abbreviations, some of which are Latin, commonly used in text writing, citations and reference lists. Some of these are Latin. For a detailed list please consult a style manual.

anon. : anonymous
cf. : confer (compare with)
ed. : edition
ed./eds. : editor/editors 
e.g. : exempli gratia (for example, for instance)
et al. : et alii (and others), used in citations and reference lists.
fig. : figure
i.e. : id est (in other words)
ill. : illustration
n.d. : no date
para./paras. : paragraph/paragraphs
ref./refs. : reference/references
s.v. : sub voce/verbo (under the word), used to quote a specific entry in a reference work.
vol./vols. : volume/volumes


List of references

Council of Science Editors, Style Manual Committee. 2006. Scientific style and format: The CSE manual for authors, editors, and publishers. 7th ed. Reston: Council of Science Editors.

Pearsall, Judy, and  Bill Trumble, eds. 2002. Oxford English reference dictionary. Oxford : Oxford Univ. Press. 

University of Chicago Press. 2017. The Chicago manual of style. 17th ed. Chicago: Univ. of Chicago Press. Also available at (subscription only)

Wikipedia: the free encyclopedia.



Author : a person/organization responsible for the creation of a work and its content in its published form.


Citation :  a reference to a work/document that provides the necessary information to identify the source.


Cite : see Citation.


Bibliography : see Reference List.


Database : "a structured set of data held in a computer, esp. one that is accessible in various ways" (Pearsall and Trumble 2002).


DOI (Digital Object Identifier) : “… a permanent identifier given to an electronic document” (Wikipedia, 18 June 2008).


Domain name : “a name that identifies a computer or computers on the Internet. These names appear as a component of a Web site's URL” (Wikipedia, 17 June 2008).


Editor : "a person who edits [assembles, prepares, modifies or condenses] material for publication or broadcasting" (Pearsall and Trumble 2002).


Intellectual Property :  “a property that is the result of creativity and does not exist in tangible form …” (Pearsall and Trumble 2002).


Paraphrase : “a free rendering or rewording of a passage” (Pearsall and Trumble 2002).


Plagiarize : “take and use (the thoughts, writings, inventions, etc. of another person) as one’s own” (Pearsall and Trumble 2002).


Proxy Server : “… a server (a computer system or an application program) which services the requests of its clients by forwarding requests to other servers” (Wikipedia, 16 June 2008).


Quotation : see Quote.


Quote : “repeat or copy out (a passage) usually with an indication that it is borrowed” (Pearsall and Trumble 2002).


Reference list : a list containing full bibliographic information regarding the works cited and consulted in one’s own text.


Source (source text) : “a text (sometimes oral) from which information or ideas are derived” (Wikipedia, 17 June 2008).


URL (Uniform Resource Locator) : “in popular usage, it means a web page address. Strictly, it is a compact string of characters for a resource available via the Internet” (Wikipedia, 17 June 2008). Root URL:  generally it corresponds to the website homepage or domain name.